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Junction Technology Group - Announcements

NCCAVS 2015 Joint User Group Meeting and Technical Symposium (Hosted by CMPUG, JTG, PAG, and TFUG)

Topic: Technology Innovation for Next Generation Materials and Manufacturing

Sponsored by: Indium Corporation
In Conjunction With:: NCCAVS 36th Annual Equipment Exhibition
4th Annual Student Poster Session
Sponsored by: Intellivation and UC Components

Holiday Inn San Jose Airport
1350 N First Street, San Jose, CA 95112
(FREE PARKING validation inside the hotel)

Date: February 19, 2015
Time: 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
(Exhibit 11:00am - 7:00pm)

To save time pre-register online for meeting and/or exhibit by clicking here

Joint Users Group Meeting and Technical Symposium Committee:
Cesar Clavero (Chair,
Michael Oye (Past-Chair,
David Hansen (CMP)
Gene Davis (CMP)
Lucia Feng (PAG)
Sing-Pin Tay (TFUG)
Michael Current (JTG)
Susan Felch (JTG)

9:00 AM Welcome and Introductions,
- Cesar Clavero, Intermolecular

9:05 AM Nanotechnology in Next Generation Devices and Manufacturing,
- Meyya Meyyappan, NASA Ames Research Center
This talk will present an overview of some recent exciting nanotechnology research activities at NASA Ames Research Center. First, we have been fabricating nanoscale vacuum tubes over the last two years using entirely and exclusively silicon technology. Vacuum is superior to any semiconductor in terms of electron transport, in addition to being immune to all radiations. We have combined the best of vacuum and silicon technology to fabricate surround gate nanoscale vacuum transistors with a channel dimension of 50 nm in 8 inch wafers. These vacuum transistors, operating at a drive voltage of only 2 V which is remarkable for vacuum devices, have the potential for THz electronics and several other applications. The device physics, fabrication and results will be presented. Next, we have developed an aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure plasma deposition process to efficiently deposit metal, semiconducting, dielectric and biomaterials on flexible substrates and 3D objects. This multijet plasma system can be a dry alternative to inkjet printing in the emerging field of flexible electronics. Finally, results from our recent efforts on paper electronics, especially various types of sensors will be described. The author thanks his NASA Ames colleagues Jin-Woo Han, Ram Prasad Ghandiraman, Beomseok Kim, Jessica Koehne and Michael Oye.

Meyya Meyyappan is Chief Scientist for Exploration Technology at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. Until June 2006, he served as the Director of the Center for Nanotechnology. He is a founding member of the Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology (IWGN) established by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The IWGN is responsible for putting together the National Nanotechnology Initiative.

Dr. Meyyappan has authored or co-authored over 300 articles in peer-reviewed journals and made over 250 Invited/Keynote/Plenary Talks in nanotechnology subjects across the world and over 200 seminars at universities. His research interests include carbon nanotubes, graphene, and various inorganic nanowires, their growth and characterization, and application development in chemical and biosensors, instrumentation, electronics and optoelectronics.

Dr. Meyyappan is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Electrochemical Society (ECS), American Vacuum Society (AVS), Materials Research Society (MRS), Institute of Physics (IOP), American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and the California Council of Science and Technology. He is currently the IEEE Nanotechnology Council (NTC) Distinguished Lecturer on Nanotechnology, IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS) Distinguished Lecturer, and was ASME's Distinguished Lecturer on Nanotechnology (2004-2006). He served as the President of the IEEE's Nanotechnology Council in 2006-2007 and the Vice President of IEEE-EDS for Educational Activities in 2010-2013.

For his contributions and leadership in nanotechnology, he has received numerous awards including: a Presidential Meritorious Award; NASA's Outstanding Leadership Medal; Arthur Flemming Award given by the Arthur Flemming Foundation and the George Washington University; IEEE Judith Resnick Award; IEEE-USA Harry Diamond Award; AIChE Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum Award; Distinguished Engineering Achievement Award by the Engineers' Council; Pioneer Award in Nanotechnology by the IEEE-NTC; Sir Monty Finniston Award by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (UK); Outstanding Engineering Achievement Merit Award (2014) by the Engineers' Council; IEEE-USA Professional Achievement Award. For his sustained contributions to nanotechnology, he was inducted into the Silicon Valley Engineering Council Hall of Fame in 2009. He received an Honorary Doctorate in 2015 from the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa for his scientific contributions.

For his educational contributions, he has received: Outstanding Recognition Award from the NASA Office of Education; the Engineer of the Year Award(2004) by the San Francisco Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA); IEEE-EDS Education Award; IEEE-EAB (Educational Activities Board) Meritorious Achievement Award in Continuing Education.

9:55 AM Low Emissivity (Low-E) Coating Technologies for Energy Saving Window Applications,
- Guowen Ding, Intermolecular

Windows are often considered the least energy efficient components in a building. The technologies for improving the energy efficiency of windows have been growing rapidly in the past decade. Such technologies provide solutions in two aspects: (1) control of heat transfer through the window between the indoor and outdoor areas, and (2) control of the solar heat gain performance of the window, (which is different for hot and cold climates, one requires the solar heat gain to be as low as possible for hot climates, and the other requires the opposite). Low-E coating windows provide economic, durable solutions for those requirements. Therefore, the low-E coating market is growing rapidly worldwide. In this presentation, low-E technologies will be reviewed, including monolithic window low-E technology (e.g. in-line low-E technology) and glazing window low-E technology (e.g. off-line low-E technology). The glazing window low-E technology provides better heat radiation control, better solar heat control, and better optical performance, but at a higher price point. Currently, silver based coating technologies are the dominate products for the glazing window low-E products. These technologies consist of single, double, and triple silver products. Finally, general comments on the low-E market will be presented.

10:30 AM Coffee Break

10:45 AM Coupling of Surface Light into Lateral Modes of a Waveguide or Photonic Resonant Structure, A Finite Difference Finite Time Model Approach to High Accuracy and High Optical Coupling Efficiency,
- Ernest Demaray, Antropy Inc.

It is shown that quantitative results with +/- a few percent accuracy can be obtained by the use of a modified FDFT field solver and appropriate FFT methods for analysis of spectral power over time evolution of as few as 1.6 picoseconds, that light broad band sunlight can be coupled into a lateral high index planar waveguide for transport over multi-meter distance with > 90% efficiency and for selected wavelengths, e.g. 450nm up to 100% efficiency. The modeling development as well as examples of specific computations will be discussed along with new devices for both solar and solid state light collection transport and transformation that might be developed according to this new method.
11:20 AM Tunable Properties of Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (Al:ZnO) and Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) for Devices, Jonathan Skuza, Norfolk State University

Transition metal and complex oxides have been a burgeoning area of research in recent years due to their unique and tunable properties, which are advantageous for a number of technological devices. Focus will be given to two specific oxides, namely aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) and vanadium dioxide (VO2). Wide bandgap semiconductors, such as Al:ZnO, have been extremely important for various optoelectronic applications due to the coexistence of high conductivity and high transparency (i.e. transparent conducting oxides). These properties can be tuned through doping (e.g. atomic layer deposition) and have been shown to hold great potential in surpassing the tunability and flexibility of traditional noble metals in nanoplasmonic applications and devices. Materials that exhibit a semiconductor-metal (SMT) or metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature, such as VO2, have become important due to the unique changes in their optical and electronic properties. These properties, of course, can be tailored for use in a multitude of smart devices, which will be discussed.

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM Free Lunch in the Equipment Exhibition Hall

1:00 PM 40 Years of Magnetron Sputtering: Still an Exciting Field for Discovery,
- Andre Anders, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The roots of magnetron sputtering can be traced way back, about 150 years, and the field took off with the invention of the planar magnetron in the early 1970s. Yet, only recently we learned about features of magnetron plasmas which can be observed across various geometries and power levels in both metal and reactive modes. One finds that plasma instabilities are the norm, not the exception. Therefore, our classical picture of operation needs to be modified. This concerns both the way electrons gain energy as well as how current and plasma is transported from the near-target region to the substrate. Electrons gain energy not only via the secondary electron mechanism (the Penning-Thornton paradigm) but make use of the voltage drop in the magnetic presheath. This is very effective because there are many more electrons in the magnetic presheath than there are secondary electrons supplied from the target. This has been discussed by Hou et al. [1] using a global discharge model. This model can be extended to situations where plasma "bunching" leads to moving ionization zones or spokes [2]. Heating of electrons and self-organization of ionization zones are related: ionization is amplified by locally heated electrons, and local heating facilitates the formation of a potential hump. Zone formation is very pronounced for high power impulse magnetron sputtering, however, under certain high power conditions the zones seem to merge and one may speculate that the potential hump is spread out over the entire racetrack region. Clearly, we have not completed the journey of magnetron research.
[1] C. Huo, D. Lundin, M.A. Raadu, A. Anders, J.T. Gudmundsson, N. Brenning, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 22 (2013) 045005.
[2] A. Anders, P. Ni, A. Rauch, J. Appl. Phys. 111 (2012) 053304.

1:50 PM Using Plasmas to Trap Antihydrogen Atoms,
- Joel Fajans, UC Berkeley

Recently, physicists have managed to create and trap antihydrogen atoms. These atoms consist of a positively charged electron (a positron) orbiting a negatively charge proton (an antiproton), Physicists have long speculating that the properties of these anti-atoms might be different from the properties of normal matter atoms; for instance, though very unlikely, it is possible that these atoms would fall up rather than down. In this talk I will describe how positron and antiproton plasmas are used to create and trap these antimatter atoms.

Joel Fajans received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1985 with a thesis on free electron lasers. Since then, he has worked on non-neutral plasmas: plasmas whose constituents have one sign of charge only. Currently a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Fajans is a member of the ALPHA collaboration at CERN,, ALPHA trapped antihydrogen atoms in 2010, and has since begun measurements of their spectral, gravitational, and charge properties.

2:25 PM Mechanisms for Ultra-Low Temperature Plasma Activated Direct Wafer Bonding,
- Garrett Oakes, EVGroup

Direct wafer bonding is a straightforward method of directly connecting wafers, with suitable (in terms of micro-roughness, flatness and cleanliness) surfaces, permanently to each other, by bringing them into contact and subsequently annealing them. The conventional process for hydrophilic oxidized Silicon surfaces (native as well as thermal oxide) is well understood, and explained. In contrast, low temperature plasma activated direct wafer bonding is a process that lowers the required annealing temperatures and annealing time necessary for reaching high bond strength and attempts to explain the obtained results using the known model for silicon hydrophilic bonding failed.

In order to clarify the gap closing mechanism, plasma activated wafer surfaces were investigated using surface sensitive techniques such as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and Auger electron analysis. Additionally interfaces of bonded wafer pairs with bond strength values of 1500 mJ/m² and 2500 mJ/m² were investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

Based on this research a theoretical model was developed, which explains the specific results of this process. The model for plasma activated wafer bonding will be presented in detail. This model is based on the model of the classical process, but proposes a different mechanism for gap closure at low annealing temperatures.

3:00 PM Coffee Break

3:15 PM High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cell Based on Diluted Nitrides,
- Ferran Suarez, Solar Junction

Multijunction solar cells, based on III-V semiconductor compounds, have demonstrated high efficiencies for the generation of electricity from solar radiation (1). The efficiency and power improvements make it possible to apply this technology to the space and terrestrial energy markets.

Solar Junction's proprietary dilute nitride material enables lattice matched growth to GaAs and/or Ge substrates. The lattice-matched growth approach increases yield, reliability, and efficiency by avoiding strain and defects. Single substrate growth reduces cost and facilitates the wafer processing.

Dilute nitride material is band-gap tunable from 0.8 eV to 1.4 eV, enabling high material quality for solar cells, and a superior efficiency roadmap.

Multijunction solar cells structures with 3, 4, 5 and 6 junctions will be discussed.

3:50 PM New CMP Applications,
- Rob Rhoades, Entrepix, Inc.

CMP was first introduced to electronic device manufacturing to planarize oxide layers in CMOS integrated circuits. Over the past twenty years, usage has expanded to include tungsten vias, shallow trench isolation, polysilicon, copper dual damascene, etc. These processes account for the vast majority of CMP currently being performed around the world. However, a large number of new materials and new devices are now leveraging the unique capabilities of this process to enable new and emerging technology platforms.

New applications of CMP frequently involve significant technical challenges for process and integration teams. For example, MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) devices are often much larger in all dimensions than typical CMOS devices with step heights up to tens of microns and feature sizes of several hundred microns being common. These larger features require development of novel and sometimes unique CMP solutions.

Thru silicon vias (TSV's) are being developed for advanced packaging to reduce parasitic losses and shrink form factors. Most TSV process modules rely on CMP at least once, usually twice, during the fabrication sequence. Deposited films for these applications are also thicker than typical CMOS metallization layers and may have unique compositions, thus CMP requires customization and process development with new pads and slurries. In addition, some integrations require via filling with non-standard materials for specialty purposes, such as platinum for high temperature tolerance or polysilicon for voltage sensing with minimal current flow.

4:25 PM Advanced Techniques for Simulating Material Properties and Manufacturing Processes,
- Mike Hook, Cobham

In addition to the normal pressures on cost and time-to-market, one ubiquitous theme in product design is the emphasis on achieving ever higher performance. Material selection and process design clearly have significant impact here, as well as on cost and development time. This presentation describes how novel techniques, now available in modern simulation tools, are starting to enable rapid analysis of some of the material properties and process phenomena that can limit product performance, and that previously have been difficult or even intractable to simulate.

The presentation will discuss issues that bear on a wide range of applications, and will include the simulation of magnetization and losses in magnetic materials, analysis of the quench phenomenon in superconducting magnets, and the optimization of manufacturing processes involving plasmas and charged particle beams. The discussion will illustrate the capabilities of modern software using examples simulated in the Opera multiphysics simulation software tool for designers of electromagnetic equipment.

5:00 PM Adjourn Joint Users Group Meeting and Technical Symposium/Exhibit Open until 7:00pm

5:00 - 7:00 PM Hospitality Session in Exhibit Hall, Enjoy food and drinks.

All presentations will be requested to be posted on the Users Group Proceedings webpages.

The generous support of our industry sponsors allows the Users Groups to provide ongoing technical symposia to our Silicon Valley membership. These symposia play a critical role in keeping our local businesses and membership at the leading edge of evolving technologies.
Please consider joining this effort by becoming a Silver Sponsor ($500) for this event. Benefits include company name/hyperlink on e-mail announcement and Announcement Webpage, plus one overhead slide at the meeting. If you would like to sponsor the Joint Users Group Meeting please complete the online sponsorship form at NCCAVS Users Group Marketing Opportunities.

Silver level sponsorships ($500) are requested. If you would like to sponsor the Joint User Group Meeting please complete the online sponsorship form at

Schedule of Events

9:00AM-5:00PM - Joint User Group Meeting and Technical Symposium begins

11:00AM-7:00PM - NCCAVS 36th Annual Vacuum Equipment Exhibition

12:00-1:00PM - Lunch: Sponsored by Intellivation and UC Components

3:30PM - Student Poster Session - "Visionaries of Tomorrow" Students will be on hand to introduce and discuss their research. 1st place - $750; 2nd place - $500; 3rd place - $300

4:30-7:00PM - Hospitality Session – Food and drinks included;
Sponsored by Intellivation and UC Components. Come network with the exhibitors and rekindle old acquaintances while viewing the latest advancements in our industry.

Exhibit Raffles
Six (6) -$100 Gift Cards
- Raffled at two (2) hour intervals. Pick up your tickets when exiting the Symposium talks and check the LED light board in the exhibit hall for your winning number.

These events are only possible with the support of our NCCAVS volunteers and User Group members. Please give them special recognition if introduced.

Click here for a link to our NCCAVS website for past NCCAVS exhibitors.

To save time pre-register online for meeting and/or exhibit by clicking here

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