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TF Users Group - Announcements

NCCAVS Joint User Group Meeting
Nanomaterials for Energy, Biomedical, and Electronic Devices

Holiday Inn San Jose Airport (formerly the Wyndham San Jose Hotel)
1350 N. First Street, San Jose, CA 95112

February 20, 2014, 9:00 am - 5:00 pm

Hosted by:
  • Junction Technology (JTG)
  • Plasma Applications (PAG)
  • Thin Films (TFUG)
Joint User Group Program Committee:

Michael Oye (Chair),
Brett Cruden
Chris Malocsay
Lucia Feng
Michael Current
Paul Werbaneth
Randy Mundt
Sing-Pin Tay
Susan Felch

Technical Symposium AGENDA
Download Agenda

9:00 - 9:05 AM: Welcome, Introduction, and Overview of Nanomaterials for Energy, Biomedical, and Electronic Devices
Michael Oye, Advanced Studies Laboratories, UC Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center

Michael Oye is serving as the Chair of the 2014 Joint Users Group Symposium on Nanomaterials for Energy, Biomedical, and Electronic Devices and will provide the welcome and a brief overview of the Symposium. His active research interests are in piezoelectric energy harvesting devices and plasma synthesis of graphene. He is a part of the NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology. Michael Oye is also an Assistant Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at UCSC and is the Co-Director (UCSC) of the Advanced Studies Laboratories, which is a partnership between UC Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center to foster collaboration between Academia, Government, and Industry.

9:05 - 9:35 AM: Biomedical Devices: Engineering's Contributions to Improving Quality of Life
Guna Selveduray, San Jose State University

Following a brief introduction to biomedical devices and what makes them unique, the technological and societal driving forces behind the continued development of biomedical devices will be explored. The multidisciplinary approach necessary for successful development of biomedical devices will be emphasized. This will be followed by a brief description of the development of the biomedical engineering BS and MS programs at SJSU, including its multidisciplinary nature. The development of curricular and research capabilities in nanomaterials and nanoplatforms will also be described.

Guna Selvaduray joined San Jose State University in Fall 1984. He obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science & Engineering from Stanford University, and his B. Eng. Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology. His research interests include materials issues for biomedical implants, Pb-free solder interconnections, corrosion, and surface and interfacial interactions, among others. He has been leading the College of Engineering’s successful development of curricula and research capabilities in biomedical engineering and biomedical devices, including the B.S. and M.S. Biomedical Engineering programs. His research and scholarly activities have attracted funding from a variety of government agencies and private companies. He has over 100 publications and has made over 120 technical presentations. Guna is also a consultant to industries in the USA and Japan.

9:40 - 10:10 AM: Metal-Carbon Nanotube Contacts
Patrick Wilhite and Cary Yang, Santa Clara University

To realize nanocarbons in general and carbon nanotube (CNT) in particular as on-chip interconnect materials, the contact resistance stemming from the metal-CNT interface must be well understood and minimized. Understanding the complex mechanisms at the interface can lead to effective contact resistance reduction. We present a review of existing published results and understanding for two metal-CNT contact geometries, sidewall or side contact and end contact, and address key performance characteristics which lead to low contact resistance. Side contacts typically result in contact resistances > 1 kΩ, whereas end contacts, such as that for as-grown vertically aligned CNTs on a metal underlayer, can be substantially lower. The lower contact resistance for the latter is due largely to strong bonding between edge carbon atoms with atoms on the metal surface, while carrier transport across a side-contacted interface via tunneling is generally associated with high contact resistance. Analyses of high-resolution images of interface nanostructures for various metal-CNT structures, along with their measured electrical characteristics, provide the necessary knowledge for continuous improvements of techniques to reduce contact resistance. Such contact engineering approach is described for both side and end-contacted structures.

Cary Y. Yang received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. After working at M.I.T., NASA Ames Research Center, and Stanford University on electronic properties of nanostructure surfaces and interfaces, he founded Surface Analytic Research, a Silicon Valley company focusing on sponsored research projects covering various applications of surfaces and nanostructures. He joined Santa Clara University in 1983 and is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering and Director of TENT Laboratory. He was the Founding Director of Center for Nanostructures and served as Chair of Electrical Engineering and Associate Dean of Engineering at Santa Clara. His research spans from silicon-based nanoelectronics to nanostructure interfaces in electronic, biological, energy-storage systems. An IEEE Fellow since 1999, he served as editor of the IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, president of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, and elected member of the IEEE Board of Directors. In 2001, on behalf of the People to People Ambassadors Program, he led an Electron Devices Delegation to visit universities, government institutes, and companies in the People’s Republic of China. He was recognized with the 2004 IEEE Educational Activities Board Meritorious Achievement Award in Continuing Education "for extensive and innovative contributions to the continuing education of working professionals in the field of micro/nanoelectronics." In 2005, he received the IEEE Electron Devices Society Distinguished Service Award. He currently holds the Bao Yugang Chair Professorship at Zhejiang University in China.

10:15 - 10:20 AM: Coffee Break

10:20 - 10:50 AM: Nanogel Star Polymers As Interesting Soft Colloid Materials For Biomedical Applications
R.D. Miller, IBM-Almaden

Organic polymers have numerous biomedical applications including vehicles for drug delivery, encapsulating materials for imaging applications, antimicrobial materials, hydrogels for wound applications, scaffolds, for tissue regeneration, templates for nanoreactors , core-shell materials etc. We have developed bottom up synthetic routes to nanogel core-shell polymers where the crosslinked core provides a platform for the attachment of a plethora of functionalized arms with control over functionality, end groups, molecular weight and polydispersitivity. The particles generated may be biostable, degradable or nondegradable. The synthetic route is versatile and allows you to mix and match the properties of the various components. By generation of unimolecular amphiphiles various targets can be incorporated through encapsulation. The core is always crosslinked and the arms can homo-, random or block copolymers and can be linear or branched. There are many structural similarities to dendrimers without the cost, synthetic limitations and purification issues of the latter. The peripheral functionality can be used for functionalization, initiation of polymerization or as catalysts for the deposition of inorganic shells such as oxide or gold. Depending on the shell material, it can be used as a scaffold for ligands, provide a level of control for access and egress of encapsulents and reagents or provide a optically sensitive plasmonic shell. Appropriate outer arm and/or peripheral substitution can also produce materials with significant antimicrobial characteristics.

10:55 - 11:25 AM: Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrode Arrays for Biosensing Applications
Jessica Koehne, NASA Ames Research Center

A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable "smart" therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

Dr. Jessica E. Koehne is a research scientist at the NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology where she leads the Nano-Biosensors Group. Her research interests include the interface between nanoscale materials and biological systems with an emphasis on biosensing. Dr. Koehne has worked for 10 years on a carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode based sensor platform for the detection of DNA, rRNA, proteins and neurotransmitters with applications ranging from point-of-care to homeland security. Dr. Koehne has published 30 peer reviewed articles in the field of nanotechnology and has received many awards for technical achievement including the 2011 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

11:30 - 12:00 PM: Efficient Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Simulation - from Nanomaterials to Macro Devices
Mike Hook, Cobham Technical Services

Development of many modern devices is characterized by the pressures of producing ever more sophisticated, high performance products, while reducing their development and production costs, and time-to-market. Success in achieving these requirements can rely on the availability of accurate virtual prototyping software that allows engineers rapidly to investigate a wide range of designs and operating regimes. Simulation can usually be performed in a fraction of the time of an experimental programme, and at a fraction of the cost. It also enables the optimization of full life-cycle-costs from the outset. In many industries where virtual design and test is routinely used, the development process, end products and life-cycle costs have all improved dramatically

This presentation discusses one such design and analysis tool, known as Opera.

Opera is a multiphysics simulation software tool for designers of electromagnetic equipment. It has wide application, including in the areas of energy, biomedicine and electronic devices, where its versatility and accuracy have been valued for many years.

The presentation will outline a range of relevant applications, and will then concentrate on the capabilities of the software in one particular field, that of charged particle devices. Here, Opera enables the modelling of the interaction of charged-particles with electromagnetic fields, including space charge limited emission and self-consistent particle tracking.

The ability to model these features is critical for obtaining optimum performance from a wide range of devices, be they x-ray tubes or flat screen displays, ion sources or particle accelerators. The Opera software suite has included this capability for a number of years, and continual developments are bringing further enhancements. An example of its use in the design and analysis of carbon nanotube emitters for flat displays will be discussed. The latest enhancement will also be introduced - a new self-consistent plasma emission model for magnetron sputtering devices. This offers the capability to simulate a sputter coater in a realistic time, and allows optimization of such parameters as the deposited film profile and target utilization - parameters critical to the performance of the end-products and to the economics of the process.

12:00 - 1:30 PM: Lunch

1:30 - 2:00 PM: The Spin on Electronics! Science and Technology of spin currents in nano-materials and nano-devices
Stuart Parkin, IBM-Almaden

Recent advances in manipulating spin-polarized electron currents in atomically engineered magnetic heterostructures make possible entirely new classes of sensor, memory and logic devices - a research field generally referred to as spintronics. A magnetic recording read head, initially formed from a spin-valve, and more recently by a magnetic tunnel junction, has enabled a 1,000-fold increase in the storage capacity of hard disk drives since 1997. The very low cost of disk drives and the high performance and reliability of solid-state memories, may be combined in the Racetrack Memory. The Racetrack Memory is a novel three dimensional technology which stores information as a series of magnetic domain walls in nanowires, manipulated by spin polarized currents. Spintronic devices may even allow for “plastic” devices that mimic synaptic switches in the brain, thereby allowing for the possibility of very low power computing devices.

2:05 - 2:35 PM: Electrode Designs for High Energy Lithium-ion Cells
Godfrey Sikha and Connie Wang, Applied Materials

The specific energy (Wh/kg) of the state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells today are in the range of 235-265 Wh/kg. For successful penetration of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles, a significant increase in cell specific energy is desired. One approach to achieve a high cell specific energy is to use advanced materials which includes (i) use of high voltage chemistries, enabled by positive electrodes which have higher equilibrium potentials, e.g. LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 (>4.8V), xLi2Mn2O3.(1-x)LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (>4.5V) etc. (ii) use of high specific capacity (mAh/g) positive or negative electrode chemistries, e.g. Silicon (>2000 mAh/g), Sulphur (>800 mAh/g). Another approach is to use existing state of the art materials, and engineer design properties at the electrode level to enhance cell specific energy. In this regard, the use of a thick and/or dense electrode will decrease the mass ratio of the inactive components relative to the active material components, thereby yielding a higher cell specific energy. However such electrodes do not achieve high energy efficiencies at normal operational conditions (charge/discharge), due to Li transport limitations in the electrodes. This talk will present the different over-potential losses leading to lower utilization (and overall energy efficiency) in such electrodes and also discuss novel electrode architectures to achieve higher energy efficiencies, thus enabling the design of high specific energy cells.

2:40 - 3:10 PM: Controlled Nanoparticle Generation by Terminated Cluster Growth in a Sputtering Chamber
Andre Anders and Cesar Clavero, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

For some applications it is highly desirable to have nanoparticles of controlled size and chemical composition deposited on a surface, or embedded in a matrix film, or sandwiched between films. Magnetron sputtering in high pressure, e.g. 100 mTorr or higher, can produce nanoparticles of the target materials by nucleation and cluster growth. In contrast, magnetron sputtering at low pressure, e.g. 10 mTorr and lower, is known to produce high quality thin films. Using a differentially pumped nanoparticle generator, both nanoparticle synthesis and thin film deposition can be done in a sputtering process chamber.

We demonstrate the concept by producing a film composed of thermochromic VO2 nanocrystals with high control over their composition, size and crystallinity. A vanadium target is sputtered in pure argon with a controlled, small amount of oxygen. The presence of oxygen enables heterogeneous nucleation, which gives a much higher rate than nucleation in pure argon. This technique has great potential to be scaled up and integrated with in-line coaters, commonly used for large-area deposition. Optimum crystallization of the VO2 nanoparticles is achieved after post-growth annealing at 350°C, a temperature drastically lower than that required by chemical or implantation fabrication methods. The VO2 nanocrystal thin films exhibit superior modulation of the transmittance in the visible and near IR portion due to a combination of thermochromic and plasmonic effects [1], opening up a new horizon in applications such as smarts windows.

[1] C. Clavero, J.L. Slack, A. Anders, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (2013) 362001.

André Anders is a Senior Scientist and Group Leader at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California. He grew up in East Germany and studied physics in Wrocław, Poland, Berlin, East Germany, and Moscow, Russia (then Soviet Union) to obtain his PhD in physics from Humboldt University, Berlin, in 1987. Since 1992 at Berkeley Lab, he works on plasma and ion beam technologies for materials, with emphasis on energy-related applications. André is the author/co-author of 3 books and more than 270 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Physics and was elected Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), the American Vacuum Society (AVS), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the Institute of Physics (IoP).

3:15 - 3:20 PM: Coffee Break

3:20 - 3:50 PM: Implement Smell and Taste with Nano-sensors
Zhiyong Li, HP Labs

Abstract: The well-being of people and a safe, secure and sustainable world around them demand ultra-sensitive "smell and taste" equivalent sensory to connect the physical world and people through innovative technologies. Inexpensive and real-time detection, identification and even quantification of the trace amount of unusual molecules, in the water you drink, in the food you eat, in the air you breathe, or even disease indicator in your body, will be an indispensible part of the future world. I will describe a novel nanosensor platform that can lead to molecular sensing with high performance, and ease of use, in a palm-size system, at a low cost. The technology is based on rationally designed nanoplasmonic structures to reveal the unique fingerprint of a molecule, also widely known as Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

3:55 - 4:25 PM: Two-dimensional Crystal Growth Under Vacuum: Epitaxial Graphene on Metal Substrates
Oscar Dubon, UC Berkeley

Pristine, single-crystalline graphene displays a unique collection of remarkable electronic properties that arise from its two-dimensional, honeycomb structure. The inexpensive, scalable growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal substrates, specifically Cu, has accelerated graphene science and technology; however, the underlying mechanisms for growth remain unclear. In-situ low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction are powerful techniques extremely well suited to study the growth behavior of graphene islands on a variety of metals. The growth of graphene under vacuum in an electron microscope enables us to elucidate the mechanisms that control film evolution, from islands to a continous layer. The resulting experiments have been instrumental in revealing the structure graphene islands as well as the processes that govern island shape including the central role played by the interaction between the graphene edge and the metal substrate. I will present specific results on the growth of graphene on Cu and Au and discuss the implications of these results to other materials systems.

This work was performed in collaboration with P. Rogge and J.M. Wofford (UCB and LBNL), and K.F. McCarty, E. Starodub, S. Nie, N.C. Bartelt, and K. Thurmer (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA). This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Dr. Zhiyong Li is a principle scientist and program manager at HP Labs. He joined HP since 2001 and pioneered the nanosensor research at HP Labs. A novel ultrasensitive molecular sensing system developed by his team has great potential for the future implementation of smell and taste sensory for environmental, health, food, homeland security, and safety monitoring applications. Dr. Li graduated with a PhD degree in Chemistry from University of Notre Dame, 2001, a MS degree in Inorganic Materials from Chinese Academy of Science, 1996, and a BS degree in Chemistry from University of Science and Technology of China, 1993. He has published more than 60 peer-reviewed journal articles, and has more than 50 US patents granted.

4:30 - 5:00 PM: Bionanotech Approaches to Energy Capture and Conversion
Jonathan Trent, UC Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center

Biological systems capture energy from the environment and convert it into biomass and energy-dense storage products. The most abundant biological polymer on earth is cellulose, which is a ubiquitous constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its abundance, cellulose is an attractive feedstock for biofuels production, but the cellulose polymer is extremely stable and its constituent sugars are difficult to access. In nature, extracellular multi-enzyme complexes known as "cellulosomes" are among the most effective ways to transform cellulose into useable sugars. Cellulosomes consist of a diversity of cellulose degrading enzymes sharing a conserved dockerin module through which they all attach to a protein scaffold made of cohesin modules. The colocalization of these enzymes on the scaffold allows them to function synergistically. To understand and harness this synergy, a simplified cellulosomes was constructed, expressed, and reconstituted using a scaffold made of a genetically engineered, protein complex called a rosettasome. Rosettasomes are 18-subunit, double ring complexes derived from the hyperthermo-acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, which self-assemble in the presence of ATP/Mg. We fused a cohesin module from Clostridium thermocellum to a circular-permutant of a rosettasome subunit, and demonstrate that the cohesin-rosettasomes: 1) bind dockerin-containing endo- and exo-gluconases, 2) the bound enzymes have increased cellulose-degrading activity compared to their activity free in solution, and 3) this increased activity depends on the number and ratio of the bound glucanases. We call these engineered multi-enzyme structures rosettazymes. The implications of re-engineering self-assembled complexes will be discussed.

After receiving a Ph.D. in Biological Oceanography at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Dr. Jonathan Trent spent six years in Europe at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, and the University of Paris at Orsay in France. He returned to the USA to work at the Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine at Yale Medical School for two years before establishing a biotechnology group at Argonne National Laboratory. In 1998 he moved to NASA Ames Research Center to be part of NASA’s Astrobiology program and later established the Protein Nanotechnology Group. In addition to working at NASA, he is an Adjunct Professor at UC Santa Cruz and is a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences.

In 2007, Dr. Trent founded the GREEN team focused on Global Research into Energy and the Environment at NASA. In 2008, he invented OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae) to grow oil-producing microalgae on municipal wastewater. In 2009, with support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, he formed the multidisciplinary OMEGA team to evaluate the feasibility of the OMEGA system. In addition, NASA has signed an MOA with the US Navy to work together on producing biofuels using OMEGA. The goal is to develop OMEGA as an example of an "ecology of technologies" for producing large amounts of algae biomass while treating municipal wastewater, sequestering carbon, and providing a platform for aquaculture.

All presentations will be requested to be posted on the Users Group Proceedings webpages.

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